Patinas - Important To Art Value

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All Our Finishes On Wrought Iron Are Natural Or Heat Applied Patinas

All Patina Finishes Are The Finest To World Class Antiquity Standards

All Of Our Iron Products Are Finished Using Natural processes Or Heat applied Iron Oxides Which Includes Environmentally Friendly Naturally Occurring Patinas Processed To World Class Fine Art Perfection - We Never Use Faux Finishes, Veneers, Laminates, Casted Or Electro Plated Metals (a so called drop forged casted copy of a real hand forged work of iron art). All of our creations are created the "The Old Fashioned Way True To Our Heritage" - by the hands of our world class Master Craftsmen to ensure that your custom creation is is true investment quality "The Real McCoy."

We Are One Of The Worlds Authorities On Fine Art Patina Finished Wrought Iron, Copper Brass, Gold, And Silver - Over the years we have developed and redeveloped many of the finish processes have become the accepted standard finishes to fine art metal manufacturers and artisans around the world. We have pioneered new finishes and process,s (some trade secrets)with the focus for several decades on developing non toxic patinas due to the environmental requirements of our planet and the health and safety to our consumers and employees. We are proud to express we have been successful in developing these non toxic finish methods to equal standards as the tried and tested old ones. As of this date (1996) we are proud to report our finish department is 75% non toxic on most new creative design furnishings.

Due To Our Fine Art Antique Reproduction Furniture, Lighting, Wrought Iron Gates And Hardware And Restoration Serving The Insurance Claims Industry As Well As Antique Collectors We are Forced To Use Some Of The The Old Standard Methods Of Patinas and Finishing when we hand build an historical fine art reproduction we build it in the same hand and materials and processes as it was built by the original producer in the era it was produced in. Example: if its a 13th century chandelier or gate and its need stay authentic it will be refinished using the exact methods and materials taking care as to not disturb the natural patinas. This is the only way we know to restore or rebuild so each piece will maintain full value and original integrity.

When we repair and refinish a museum quality antique furnishing for a museum, collector or insurance claim flood, fire, etc., we must use the exact finishes and methods as was originally used. Some times this means we can not use our environmentally friendly modern non toxic processes. Note: However we do take every safety precaution and have the state of the art down draft environmentally controlled booths and equipment to keep these processes safe to our personal and consumers. With our equipment no is to large to handle.

Patinas Finishes, Iron Oxides Hand Applied With High Heat

Our beautiful patina finishes are hand applied using a special patented process where oxides are bonded into the metal at over 1000 degrees. This permanent finish beautifies with age. S.A.F. does not paint or faux finish any of our iron creations. Paint fades, chips and cracks over time and patinas last forever.

No Resins - No Faux Paint Or Powder Coated Finishes

Patina - Some Important Facts And History

Patina is a film on the surface of bronze or similar metals (produced by oxidation over a long period or by a natural chemical process); a sheen on wooden furniture produced by age, wear, and polishing; or any such acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. On metal, patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as oxides or carbonates formed on the surface during exposure to the elements (weathering). Patina also refers to accumulated changes in surface texture and colour that result from normal use of an object such as a coin or a piece of furniture over time.

Patinas are restricted to exposed surfaces and are fragile (that is, they can flake off). One reason bronze is so highly valued in statuary is that its patina protects or passivates it against further corrosion. This natural patina is solid and seldom shows a tendency to flake. Brass is also resistant to corrosion, but it is, in the long run, not as attractive since local pitting shows against the shiny background.

Etymology the word "patina" comes from the Latin for "shallow dish". Figuratively, patina can refer to any fading, darkening or other signs of age, which are felt to be natural or unavoidable (or both). The natural chemical process by which a patina forms is called patination, and a work of art coated by a patina is said to be patinated.

Acquired patina the green patina that forms naturally on copper and bronze, sometimes called verdigris, usually consists of a mixture of chlorides, sulphides and carbonates. copper carbonate or copper chloride. Atacamite is another name for the patina compounds. Verdigris is usually more specifically the artificial form and can be produced on copper by the addition of vinegar (acetic acid).

Such a verdigris is water-soluble and will not last on the outside of a building like a "true" patina. It is instead usually used as pigment. One example of a patina is a green surface texture created by slow chemical alteration of copper, producing a basic carbonate. It can form on pure copper objects as well as alloys which contain copper, such as bronze or brass.

Often, antique and well used firearms will develop a patina on the steel after the bluing, parkerization, or other finish has worn. Firearms in this state are generally considered more valuable than ones that have been re-blued or parkerized. The patina protects the firearm from more damaging rust that would occur were the patina to be polished off

Applied patina Artists and metalworkers often deliberately add patinas as a part of the original design and decoration of art and furniture, or to simulate antiquity in newly-made objects. A wide range of chemicals, both household and commercial, can give a variety of patinas. They are often used by artists as surface embellishments either for color, texture, or both. Patination composition varies with the reacted elements and these will determine the color of the patina. However high heat processed oxide patinas can be infused in to the metals and will last forever in a climate controlled environment..

For copper alloys, such as bronze, exposure to chlorides leads to green, while sulfur compounds (such as "liver of sulfur") tend to brown. The basic palette for patinas on copper alloys includes chemicals like ammonium sulfide(blue-black), liver of sulfur(brown-black), cupric nitrate(blue-green) and ferric nitrate(yellow-brown). For artworks, patination is often deliberately accelerated by applying oxides with high heat.

Colors range from matte sandstone yellow to deep blues, greens, whites, reds and various blacks. Some patina colors are achieved by the mixing of colors from the reaction with the metal surface with pigments added to the chemicals. New advanced methods developed by Scottsdale Art Factory and Berkley have allowed for a environmentally friendly advancement of these patinas with out the use of these chemicals. Sometimes the surface is enhanced by waxing, oiling, or other types of lacquers or clear-coats. More simply, the French sculptor Auguste Rodin used to instruct assistants at his studio to urinate over bronzes stored in the outside yard.

The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the natural patina formed on its copper surface. a patina layer takes many years to develop under natural weathering. A copper roof will patinate faster than a copper facade, due to the longer dwell time of water on the surface. Buildings in coastal / marine locations will weather and develop a patina layer faster than ones in inland areas. For example, a new copper facade in central London will most likely not develop a "typical" green patina until after 50 years.

Facade cladding (copper cladding) with alloys of copper, e.g. Brass or Bronze, will weather differently to "pure" copper cladding. Even a lasting gold colour is possible with copper-alloy cladding. Look at Colston Hall in Bristol, or the Novotel at Paddington Central, London. There you can see some colours that one might not have expected from copper / copper-alloy cladding.

Value Apart from the aesthetic appearance and practical protection of patination, antique experts confirm that an object's value increases when its patination is intact because it is an important effect of the aging process and this evidential history is reflected in the value of the piece.

In terms of antiques, Patina is everything that happens to an object over the course of time. The nick in the leg of a table, a scratch on a table top, the loss of moisture in the paint, the crackling of a finish or a glaze in ceramics, the gentle wear patterns on the edge of a plate. All these things add up to create a softer look, subtle color changes, a character. Patina is built from all the effects, natural and man-made, that create a true antique.

Repatination In the case of antiques, several views are held on the value of patination and its replacement if damaged, known as repatination. Preserving a piece's look and character is important and removal or reduction may dramatically reduce its value. If patination has flaked off, repatination may be recommended. Appraiser, Reyne Haines notes that "a repatinated metal piece will be worth more than one with major imperfections in the patina," but less than a piece still with its original finish.

More Historical Facts About Metal

The first iron used by mankind, far back in prehistory, came from meteors. The smelting of iron in bloomeries probably began in Anatolia or the Caucasus in the second millennium BC or the latter part of the preceding one. Cast iron was first produced in China about 550 BC, but not in Europe until the medieval period. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron (in this context known as pig iron) using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel.

Steel (with a smaller carbon content than pig iron but more than wrought iron) was first produced in antiquity. New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century AD. In the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar iron without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig iron, to produce mild steel. This and other 19th century and later processes have led to wrought iron no longer being produced.

Iron is one of the most common elements on Earth, making up about 5% of the Earth's crust. Most of this iron is found in various iron oxides, such as the minerals hematite, magnetite, and taconite. The earth's core is believed to consist largely of a metallic iron-nickel alloy. About 5% of the meteorites similarly consist of iron-nickel alloy. Although rare, these are the major form of natural metallic iron on the earth's surface. The reason for Mars' red colour is thought to be an iron-oxide-rich soil.

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