How Furniture Is Made & Tools From Recorded History- INFO-230


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How Furniture Is Built And The Tools Used To Build Quality Furniture Since The Beginning Of Recorded History

In Over 5000 Years No One Has Been Able To Build A Better Furnishing, Door, Gate Or Piece Of Hardware, Than Hand Built Using Natural Materials By The Hands Of A Master Craftsman.

Investment Quality, Always Means Solid Timber, Hand Joinery, Hand Hewn, Pegged Doweled, No Glue Ups, No Engineered Cores, No Spray On finishes, Also No Castings, No Paste Board Fakes, No Machine Built Want A Bee's.

Have You Ever Asked Your Self Why Your Retail Store Always Refers To The Real Thing While Selling You Fakes Resembling Quality Designs

Lets Begin By Understanding The Building Of A Quality Chair

A chair is a raised surface used to sit on, commonly for use by one person. Chairs often have the seat raised above floor level, supported by four legs. A chair without a back or arm rests is a stool, or when raised up, a bar stool.


A chair with arms is an armchair and with folding action and inclining footrest, a recliner. A permanently fixed chair in a train or theater is a seat or airline seat; when riding, it is a saddle and bicycle saddle, and for an automobile, a car seat or infant car seat. With wheels it is a wheelchair and when hung from above, a swing.


A chair can be simple such as this chair depicted in this Van Gogh,s famous painting "Vincent's Chair" or more elaborate such as Chippendales Arm Chair. A style so elaborate it has been chosen for the American White House and is still preferred today.

Vincent's Chair by Vincent Van Gogh
Chippendale Arm Chair

No Matter The Style, These Chairs Have One Thing In Common. They Were Both Built Using The Same Basic Materials, Tried And Tested Methods, Basic Tools Of The Trade And Were Both Constructed By The Hands Of A Master Craftsman Using All Natural Materials That Will Stand The Test Of Time.

Lets Understand The Tools Of Building A Quality Chair

Tools
A Black Forest Shave Horse - pattern, with more precise clamp

Shave horses are a combination of vice and workbench, used for green woodworking. A foot-actuated clamp holds the work piece securely against pulling forces, especially as when shaped with a drawknife or spokeshave.The shavehorse is commonly used as the preparation of stock prior to turning in a lathe. Skilled operators can produce very fine results with a drawknife and shave horse, requiring minimal lathe finishing for leg turning or wheel spokes.


As the name "horse" suggests, the worker sits astride the shave horse. The clamp is operated by the operator pressing their feet onto a treadle bar below. The typical clamp is a vertical bar or bars, hinged on a pivot attached to or passing through the bench/seat top. The top of this bar is enlarged into the "horse" or "dog" head- the part that holds the wood. Some clamps are worked via string or rope, rather than mechanical leverage. For extra precision and better clamping force, the clamp pivot point may be raised above the bench level on a sub-bench, giving more leverage.


These so-called "Black Forest" or German and Swiss shave horses (as pictured above ) give a longer lever-ratio, creating greater mechanical advantage and thus greater force to trap the wood very securely. Shave-horses are commonly workshop-made by their user and entirely wooden. For the itinerant bodgers, simplicity and lightness of their tools was important- thus the bodger often created their shave horse from found logs in their woodland plot.

Polelathe in a museum in Seiffen, Germany. The bodger's equipment was so easy to move and set up that it was easier to go to the timber and work it there than to transport it to a workshop. The completed chair legs were sold to furniture factories to be married with other chair parts made in the workshop.
Common bodger's or bodging tools included: the polelathe and a variety of chisels, and likely sharpening stones or grinding wheel for honing the rapidly blunted tools (which are blunted far more rapidly than if used to shape seasoned wood stock- for turning and finishing the chair leg or stretcher pole (the horizontal structural member joining the chair-legs- to prevent them splaying

The chair is of extreme antiquity and simplicity, although for many centuries and indeed for thousands of years it was an article of state and dignity rather than an article of ordinary use. "The chair" is still extensively used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom and Canada, and in many other settings. Committees, boards of directors, and academic departments all have a 'chairman'. Endowed professorships are referred to as chairs. It was not, in fact, until the 16th century that it became common anywhere. The chest, the bench and the stool were until then the ordinary seats of everyday life, and the number of chairs which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited; most of such examples are of ecclesiastical or seigneurial origin. Our knowledge of the chairs of remote antiquity is derived almost entirely from monuments, sculpture and paintings. A few actual examples exist in the British Museum, in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo, and elsewhere.


Cesca chair, Designed by Marcel Breuer In ancient Egypt chairs appear to have been of great richness and splendor[citation needed]. Fashioned of ebony and ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were covered with costly materials, magnificent patterns and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives. The earliest known form of Greek chair, going back to five or six centuries BCE, had a back but stood straight up, front and back. During Tang dynasty (618 - 907 AD), a higher seat first started to appear amongst the Chinese elite and their usage soon spread to all levels of society. By the 12th century seating on the floor was rare in China, unlike in other Asian countries where the custom continued, and the chair, or more commonly the stool, was used in the vast majority of houses throughout the country.


In Europe, it was owing in great measure to the Renaissance that the chair ceased to be a privilege of state, and became a standard item of furniture for anyone who could afford to buy it. Once the idea of privilege faded the chair speedily came into general use. We find almost at once that the chair began to change every few years to reflect the fashions of the hour. The 20th century saw an increasing use of technology in chair construction with such things as all-metal folding chairs, metal-legged chairs, the Slumber Chair, moulded plastic chairs and ergonomic chairs. The recliner became a popular form, at least in part due to radio and television, and later a two-part. The modern movement of the 1960s produced new forms of chairs: the butterfly chair, bean bags, and the egg-shaped pod chair. Technological advances led to molded plywood and wood laminate chairs, as well as chairs made of leather or polymers. Mechanical technology incorporated into the chair enabled adjustable chairs, especially for office use. Motors embedded in the chair resulted in massage chairs.


A drawknife is a traditional woodworking hand tool used to shape wood by removing shavings. It consists of a blade with a handle at each end. The blade is much longer (along the cutting edge) than it is deep (from cutting edge to back edge). It is pulled or "drawn" hence the name, toward the user.


The spokeshave-like drawknife: for crudely rounding billets of green wood to be intermediately finished for the wood-turner. This is because "green" wood is far easier to slice near-finished to shape with the grain than to cut against the grain as per turning on the lathe. trestle or saw-horse (likely fabricated in the forest as required).

A coarse saw: for cutting fallen or newly felled wood to length


Axes and adzes: for hewing wood into rough billets


Hewing is a method of cutting wood for the purpose of dressing a timber to a desired form or shape. It was used historically as a method of squaring-up beams for building construction. As it is a labour-intensive process, such beams were commonly only squared on one surface, or around the areas necessary to make the joints.


A shave horse to firmly hold the wooden billets for using the drawknife


All Scottsdale Art Factory Products Are Designed In America and Built In America Using Solid Natural Air Dried Timber And Hand Forged Iron. By The Hands Of True American Master Craftsmen.

under the supervision of world renowned artist H. J. Nick using only the finest materials. We use "No" engineered cores or faux materials such as paste boards, veneers, masonite, MDO plywood, melamine and oriented strand board panels and have no unfinished areas. All joints and welds are hand blended and never show. "No" thin walled hollow cold bent soft metals "No" faux paint jobs or powder coating all finishes are natural patina or earth freindly lacquers

"This Is The Real McCoy."



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Master Crafted In America Since 1913. Our prices are usually lower than lesser quality name brand mass production imports, this is because "We Are The Factory," so don't be fooled by our upscale appearance.
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