Interesting Historical Facts
Pepsi (stylized in lowercase as pepsi, formerly stylized in uppercase as PEPSI) is a carbonated soft drink that is produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. Created and developed in 1898 and introduced as "Brad's Drink", it was later renamed as Pepsi-Cola on June 16, 1903, then to Pepsi in 1961.
The pharmacy of Caleb Bradham, with a Pepsi dispenser, as portrayed in a New Bern exhibition in the Historical Museum of Bern.
Pepsi was first introduced as "Brad's Drink" in New Bern, North Carolina, United States, in 1898 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his home where the drink was sold. It was later labeled Pepsi Cola, named after the digestive enzyme pepsin and kola nuts used in the recipe. Bradham sought to create a fountain drink that was delicious and would aid in digestion and boost energy.
In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse. That year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup. The next year, Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles, and sales increased to 19,848 gallons. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfield was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola, describing it as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race.
" The advertising theme "Delicious and Healthful" was then used over the next two decades. In 1926, Pepsi received its first logo redesign since the original design of 1905. In 1929, the logo was changed again.
In 1931, at the depth of the Great Depression, the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy - in large part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on wildly fluctuating sugar prices as a result of World War I. Assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark.
Megargel was unsuccessful, and soon Pepsi's assets were then purchased by Charles Guth, the President of Loft Inc. Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained soda fountains. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores' fountains after Coke refused to give him a discount on syrup. Guth then had Loft's chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula.
On three separate occasions between 1922 and 1933, the Coca-Cola Company was offered the opportunity to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company, and it declined on each occasion.
The original trademark application for Pepsi-Cola was filed on September 23, 1902 with registration approved on June 16, 1903. In the application's statement, Caleb Bradham describes the trademark as an "arbitrary hyphenated word "PEPSI-COLA", and indicated that the mark was in continuous use for his business since August 1, 1901. The Pepsi-Cola's description is a flavoring-syrup for soda water. The trademark expired on April 15, 1994.
A second Pepsi-Cola trademark is on record with the USPTO. The application date submitted by Caleb Bradham for the second trademark is Saturday, April 15, 1905 with the successful registration date of April 15, 1906, over three years after the original date. Curiously, in this application, Caleb Bradham states that the trademark had been continuously used in his business "and those from whom title is derived since in the 1905 application the description submitted to the USPTO was for a tonic beverage.
The federal status for the 1905 trademark is registered and renewed and is owned by Pepsico, Inc. of Purchase, New York.
During the Great Depression, Pepsi gained popularity following the introduction in 1936 of a 12-ounce bottle. With a radio advertising campaign featuring the jingle "Pepsi-Cola hits the spot / Twelve full ounces, that's a lot / Twice as much for a nickel, too / Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you", arranged in such a way that the jingle never ends.
Pepsi encouraged price-watching consumers to switch, obliquely referring to the Coca-Cola standard of six ounces per bottle for the price of five cents (a nickel), instead of the 12 ounces Pepsi sold at the same price. Coming at a time of economic crisis, the campaign succeeded in boosting Pepsi's status. From 1936 to 1938, Pepsi-Cola's profits doubled.
Pepsi's success under Guth came while the Loft Candy business was faltering. Since he had initially used Loft's finances and facilities to establish the new Pepsi success, the near-bankrupt Loft Company sued Guth for possession of the Pepsi-Cola company. A long legal battle, Guth v. Loft, then ensued, with the case reaching the Delaware Supreme Court and ultimately ending in a loss for Guth.
Niche marketing 1940s advertisement specifically targeting African Americans
Walter Mack was named the new President of Pepsi-Cola and guided the company through the 1940s. Mack, who supported progressive causes, noticed that the company's strategy of using advertising for a general audience either ignored African Americans or used ethnic stereotypes in portraying blacks.
He realized African Americans were an untapped niche market and that Pepsi stood to gain market share by targeting its advertising directly towards them. To this end, he hired Hennan Smith, an advertising executive "from the Negro newspaper field" to lead an all-black sales team, which had to be cut due to the onset of World War II.
In 1947, Mack resumed his efforts, hiring Edward F. Boyd to lead a twelve-man team. They came up with advertising portraying black Americans in a positive light, such as one with a smiling mother holding a six pack of Pepsi while her son (a young Ron Brown, who grew up to be Secretary of Commerce) reaches up for one.
Another ad campaign, titled "Leaders in Their Fields", profiled twenty prominent African Americans such as Nobel Peace Prize winner Ralph Bunche and photographer Gordon Parks. After the sales team visited Chicago, Pepsi's share in the city overtook that of Coke for the first time.
This focus on the market for black people caused some consternation within the company and among its affiliates. It did not want to seem focused on black customers for fear white customers would be pushed away. In a meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, Mack tried to assuage the 500 bottlers in attendance by pandering to them, saying: "We don't want it to become known as a nigger drink."After Mack left the company in 1950, support for the black sales team faded and it was cut.
From the 1930s through the late 1950s, "Pepsi-Cola Hits The Spot" was the most commonly used slogan in the days of old radio, classic motion pictures, and later television. Its jingle (conceived in the days when Pepsi cost only five cents) was used in many different forms with different lyrics. With the rise of radio, Pepsi utilized the services of a young, up-and-coming actress named Polly Bergen to promote products, oftentimes lending her singing talents to the classic "...Hits The Spot" jingle.
Film actress Joan Crawford, after marrying then Pepsi-Cola President Alfred N. Steele became a spokesperson for Pepsi, appearing in commercials, television specials and televised beauty pageants on behalf of the company. Crawford also had images of the soft drink placed prominently in several of her later films. When Steele died in 1959 Crawford was appointed to the Board of Directors of Pepsi-Cola, a position she held until 1973, although she was not a board member of the larger PepsiCo, created in 1965.
Through the intervening decades, there have been many different Pepsi theme songs sung on television by a variety of artists, from Joanie Summers to the Jacksons to Britney Spears.
In 1975, Pepsi introduced the Pepsi Challenge marketing campaign where PepsiCo set up a blind tasting between Pepsi-Cola and rival Coca-Cola. During these blind taste tests the majority of participants picked Pepsi as the better tasting of the two soft drinks. PepsiCo took great advantage of the campaign with television commercials reporting the results to the public.
In 1976 Pepsi, RKO Bottlers in Toledo, Ohio hired the first female Pepsi salesperson, Denise Muck, to coincide with the United States bicentennial celebration.
In 1996, PepsiCo launched the highly successful Pepsi Stuff marketing strategy. By 2002, the strategy was cited by Promo Magazine as one of 16 "Ageless Wonders" that "helped redefine promotion marketing".
1939–1950: "Twice as Much for a Nickel"
1950: "More Bounce to the Ounce"
1950–1957: "Any Weather is Pepsi Weather"
1957–1958: "Say Pepsi, Please"
1958–1960: "Don't be a Tramp, Buy a Can" Zane
1961–1964: "Now It's Pepsi for Those Who Think Young" (jingle sung by Joanie Sommers)
1964–1967: "Come Alive, You're in the Pepsi Generation" (jingle sung by Joanie Sommers)
1967–1969: "(Taste that beats the others cold) Pepsi Pours It On".
1969–1975: "You've Got a Lot to Live, and Pepsi's Got a Lot to Give"
1975–1977: "Buy a can 50p"
1977–1980: "Join the Pepsi People (Feeling Free)"
1980–1981: "Catch That Pepsi Spirit" (David Lucas, composer)
1981–1983: "Pepsi's got your taste for life"
1983: "Its cheaper than Coke!"
1983–1984: "Pepsi Now! Take the Challenge!"
1984–1991: "Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation" (commercial with Michael Jackson and The Jacksons, featuring the Pepsi version of "Billie Jean", "Bad" and "Black or White". "Black of White"'s was promoting the Dangerous World Tour.)
1984–1988: "Diet Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation"
1988–1989: "Diet Pepsi. The Taste That's Generations Ahead"
1989–1990: "Diet Pepsi. The Right One"
1989–1992: "Diet Pepsi. The Taste That Beats Diet Coke"
1986–1987: "We've Got the Taste" (commercial with Tina Turner)
1987–1990: "Pepsi's Cool" (commercial with Michael Jackson, featuring Pepsi version of Bad)
1990–1991: "You got the right one Baby UH HUH" (sung by Ray Charles for Diet Pepsi)
1990–1991: "Yehi hai right choice Baby UH HUH" (Urdu - meaning "This is the right choice Baby UH HUH") (Pakistan)
1991–1992: "Gotta Have It"/"Chill Out"
1992:"The Choice Is Yours"
1992–1993: "Be Young, Have Fun, Drink Pepsi"
1993–1994: "Right Now" (Van Halen song for the Crystal Pepsi advertisement)
1994–1995: "Double Dutch Bus" (Pepsi song sung by Brad Bentz)
1995: "Nothing Else is a Pepsi"
1995–1996: "Drink Pepsi. Get Stuff." Pepsi Stuff campaign
1996:"Change The Script"
1996–1997: "Pepsi: There's nothing official about it" (During the Wills World Cup (cricket) held in India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka)
1997–1998: "Generation Next" (with the Spice Girls)
1998–1999: "Its the cola" (100th anniversary commercial)
1999–2000: "For Those Who Think Young"/"The Joy of Pepsi-Cola" (commercial with Britney Spears/commercial with Mary J. Blige)
1999–2006: "Yeh Dil Maange More!" (Hindi - meaning "This heart asks for more") (India)
2003: "Its the Cola"/"Dare for More" (Pepsi Commercial)
2006–2007: "Why You Doggin' Me"/"Taste the one that's forever young" (Mary J. Blige)
2007–2008: "More Happy"/"Taste the once that's forever young" (Michael Alexander)
2000–present: "Pepsi ye pyaas heh bari" ((Urdu) meaning "There is a lot of thirst" (Pakistan))
2008: "Pepsi Stuff" Super Bowl Commercial (Justin Timberlake)
2008: "Рepsi is #1" Тv commercial (Luke Rosin)
2008–present: "Something For Everyone"
2009–present: "Refresh Everything"/"Every Generation Refreshes the World"
2009–present: "Yeh hai youngistaan meri jaan" (Hindi - meaning "This is our young country my baby")
2009–present: "My Pepsi My Way"(Pakistan)
2009–present: "Refresca tu Mundo" (Spanish - meaning "Refresh your world") (Spanish Spoken countries in Latin America)
2010–present: "Every Pepsi Refreshes The World"
2010–present "Pepsi. Sarap Magbago." (Philippines - meaning "Its nice to change")
2010–2011 "Badal Do Zamana" (Urdu - meaning "Change The World" by CALL)(Pakistan)
2010–present: "Pode ser bom, pode ser muito bom, pode ser Pepsi" (Can be good, can be very good, can be Pepsi) - Brazil
2011–present: "Change the game" (India, Bangladesh & Pakistan for the 2011 Cricket World Cup)
2011–present "Dunya Hai Dil Walon Ki" (Pakistan-meaning World is For Lovers by Ali Zafar)
2011–present "Ici, c'est Pepsi" (Québec-meaning Here, it's pepsi)
2011–present "Summer Time is Pepsi Time"
2011–present "Born in the Carolinas"