Historical Origin And Design Inspiration
A Tiffany lamp is a type of lamp with many different types of glass shades. The most famous was the stained leaded glass lamp. Tiffany lamps are considered part of the Art Nouveau movement.
The first Tiffany lamp was created around 1895. Each lamp was handmade by skilled craftsmen, not mass- or machine-produced. Its designer was not, as had been thought for over 100 years, Louis Comfort Tiffany, but a previously unrecognized artist named Clara Driscoll was identified in 2007 by Rutgers professor Martin Eidelberg as being the master designer behind the most creative and valuable leaded glass lamps produced by Tiffany Studios.
Tiffany's first business venture was an interior design firm in New York, for which he designed stained glass windows. Most of his lamps can be grouped into one of seven specific categories: Irregular Upper and Lower Border, Favrile, Geometric,Transition to Flowers, Flowered Cone, and Flowered Globe lamps.
The Irregular Upper and Lower Border lamps carry an openwork crown edge that helps to simulate a branch, tree, or shrubbery. The Favrile category, which means handcrafted, identifies the first lamps Tiffany made with this label. His initials LCT, later replaced the Favrile stamp.
The Geometric category, done primarily by the male craftsman, speaks for itself. The Tiffany craftsman used geometric shapes such as triangles, squares, rectangles, and ovals to form these patterns for these lamps.
Next is the Transition to Flowers group, which is subdivided into the Flowered Cone and Globe lamps. All of these lamps follow a nature, or botanical, design using flowers, dragonflies, spiders with webs, butterflies, and peacock feathers. The difference within these two smaller categories is the difference in the lamp shapes, basically a cone and a globe.
Production - Aside from their categorization every lamp is prepared by using the copper foil method. First a pattern for the lamp is drawn out on a heavy piece of cardboard. Next a number and glass color is written on the pattern piece. After the pattern is drawn and labeled, the glass is laid over it and traced.
Once the pattern is traced onto the glass, the pieces can be cut and ground to their correct shape. Next the pieces need to be cleaned so the copper foil can be applied to the edges. The copper foil solution allows the pieces to adhere together. After the lamp has been placed accordingly and it is fully bonded, the edges need to be soldered together for a firm hold. Finally after the lamp has been soldered it is cleaned to bring out its beauty.
Clara Driscoll (1861–1944) of Tallmadge, Ohio was director of the Tiffany Studios' Women's Glass Cutting Department (the "Tiffany Girls"), in New York City. They chose the colors and type of glass to be used in the studios' famous glass items.
Before her arrival the lamps had a static and geometric look and feel. As the creative force behind the Tiffany lamp she was director, designer and crafter of the more than thirty Tiffany lamps produced by the company; among them the famous Wisteria, Dragonfly, Peony, and from all accounts her first — the Daffodil.
Clara Driscoll was born Clara Pierce Wolcott on April 2, 1861. She lost her father at the age of 12. Unusual for that time, she, along with her equally bright and motivated three younger sisters, was encouraged to pursue a higher education.
Clara showed a flair for art, and after attending design school in Cleveland and working for a local furniture maker, she moved to New York and enrolled at the then new Metropolitan Museum Art School. Her artistic potential was apparent and she was hired by the famed Tiffany Studios.
She remained there, designing and directing the designs of lamps, mosaics, windows, and other decorative objects for more than 20 years.
Driscoll's first husband, Frances Driscoll, died and she remained a widow until re-marrying in 1909, an event which ended her career at Tiffany, as married women were not allowed to work there.
All records for Tiffany Studios were lost after it closed in the early 1930s. It was only through the combined efforts of Martin Eidelberg (professor emeritus of art history at Rutgers University), as well as Nina Gray, an independent scholar and former curator at the New-York Historical Society, and Margaret K. Hofer (curator of decorative arts, New-York Historical Society), that Clara Driscoll's involvement in designing Tiffany lamps was discovered.
The book A New Light on Tiffany: Clara Driscoll and the Tiffany Girls by Margi Hofer, Martin Eidelberg, and Nina Gray was published in 2007. It "presents celebrated works of Tiffany Studios in an entirely new context, focusing on the women who labored behind the scenes to create the masterpieces now inextricably linked to the Tiffany name."
As a young prince he was a noted womanizer, popular, well-mannered and entertaining. He struck up a firm friendship with his sister-in-law, Marie Antoinette of Austria. The closeness of the relationship was such that he was falsely accused of having seduced Marie Antoinette by Parisian rumor mongers. As part of Marie Antoinette's social set, Charles often appeared opposite her in the private theatre of her favourite royal retreat, the Petit Trianon. They were both said to be very talented amateur actors; with Marie Antoinette playing milkmaids, shepherdesses and country ladies, and Charles playing lovers, valets and farmers.
A famous story concerning the two involves the construction of the Chteau de Bagatelle. In 1775, Charles purchased a small hunting lodge in the Bois de Boulogne. He soon had the existing house torn down with plans to rebuild. Marie Antoinette wagered her brother-in-law that the new chteau could not be completed within three months. Charles engaged the neoclassical architect Franois-Joseph langer to design the building. He won his bet, with langer completing the house in sixty-three days. It is estimated that the project, which came to include manicured gardens, cost over two million livres.
Most Designs Used Today Were Conceived Hundreds Of Years Ago By Some Of The Worlds Most Famous Architects And Designers Working For The Aristocracies And The Well To Do Of Their Period.
Many of these architects and designers are as well known as Leonardo da Vinci (renaissance architecture) or Michelangelo,s (baroque architecture) as well as more recently William Morris, John Ruskin (founders of the Arts and Crafts furniture movement in circa 1800 England) Gustave Stickley (founder of the American Arts and Crafts movement in America circa 1900.) Frank Loyd Wright, Charles and Henry Greene to name a few.
Every Successful Creative Enterprise Is Always Built On A Foundation That Was Laid Down By Its Predecessors.
All creative people are dependent upon the groundwork laid down by those who came before them. H. J. Nick, artist and direct descendant of the Marbella brothers, and Scottsdale Art Factory have built on these foundations and have raised the bar of quality even higher. Thus setting a new standard and offering the finest one of a kind handmade furnishings found anywhere in the world in the 21st century.
Today Our Master Craftsman Build All Of Our Products Using The Identical Methods And Materials Of The Historical Period Of Each Furnishings Design Conception.
All 21st Century Designs Are Also Built By Our Master Craftsman Using These Classic Traditional Methods.
Whether We Build Products For Your Modern Dream Home Or Ancient Castle
every element Is always built to future collectable antiquity investment quality standards and will stand the test of time. Destined to become a part of your families appreciating financial net worth as well as a proud to own legacy heirloom.