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Cushions (also sometimes called "rails", "rail cushions", "cushion rubber", or "bumpers") are located on the sides of the tables rails. There are several different materials and design philosophies associated with cushion rubber. The cushions are made from an elastic material such as vulcanized (gum or synthetic) rubber. The chiefly American jargon "rail" more properly applies to the wooded outer segments of the table to which the cushions are affixed.
The purpose of the cushion rubber is to cause the billiard balls to rebound off the rubber while minimizing the loss of kinetic energy.
The profile of the rail cushion, which is the cushion's angle in relation to the bed of the table, varies between table types. The standard on American pool tables is the K-66 profile, which as defined by the BCA has a base of 1-3/16 inches and a nose height of 1 inch . This causes the balls' rebound to be somewhat predictable during game play.
On a carom table, the K-55 profile is used (with a somewhat sharper angle than pool cushions). K-55 cushions have cloth, usually canvas, vulcanized into the top of the rubber to adjust rebound accuracy and speed
Finally, snooker tables use the K-66 profile, like pool tables, but the cushion is an "L" shape. This is mostly[clarify] because snooker uses balls of a smaller diameter and smaller pocket entrances than does pool.
Cloth Billiard cloth (sometimes erroneously called felt) is a specific type of cloth that covers the top of the table's "playing area". Both the rails and slate beds are covered with 21-24 ounce billiard cloth (although some less expensive 19oz cloths are available) which is most often green in color (representing the grass of the original lawn games that billiards evolved from), and consists of either a woven wool or wool/nylon blend called baize.
Most bar tables, which get lots of play, use the slower, thicker blended cloth because it can better withstand heavy usage. This type of cloth is called a woolen cloth. By contrast, high quality pool cloth is usually made of a napless weave such as worsted wool, which gives a much faster roll to the balls. This "speed" of the cloth affects the amounts of swerve and deflection of the balls, among other aspects of game finesse. Snooker cloth traditionally has a directional nap, upon which the balls behave differently when rolling against vs. toward the direction of the nap.
Carom billiards tables Or Pocketless carom billiards tables are used for such games as three-cushion billiards, straight rail, balkline, artistic billiards and cushion caroms. Regulation carom billiards tables are rectangles, with the bed of the table (the playing surface) measuring 10 feet by 5 feet (though 9 ft by 4.5 ft are increasingly common).
The slate bed of carom billiard tables are often heated to about 5 degrees C (9 deg F) above room temperature, which helps to keep moisture out of the cloth to aid the balls rolling and rebounding in a consistent manner, and generally makes a table play faster. A heated table is required under international carom rules and is an especially important requirement for the games of three-cushion billiards and artistic billiards.
Heating table beds is an old practice. Queen Victoria of England (1819-1901) had a billard table that was heated using zinc tubes, although the aim at that time was chiefly to keep the then-used ivory balls from warping. The first use of electric heating was for an 18.2 balkline tournament held in December 1927 between Welker Cochran and Jacob Schaefer, Jr. The New York Times announced it with fanfare: "For the first time in the history of world's championship balkline billiards a heated table will be used...
Hand Carving Information:
Important details about the kind of carving you can expect when you order from Scottsdale Art Factory.
Colorized Carving. You can order any carving colorized. In order to achieve a colorized carving, multiple stain colors are used. The stains are hand applied and blended with an artistic eye to achieve an enhanced natural appearance.
All Steel Is Coal Fired, Hammered By Master Blacksmiths The Old Fashioned Way And Patina Finished.
At Scottsdale Art Factory, we take pride in our traditional, superior quality workmanship and craft our products from only the finest steel. Our master blacksmiths have been classically trained, and utilize old world techniques such as coal firing, anvil hammering and hand forging to create the finest handcrafted hardware available anywhere. All of our steel work is hand patina finished by heat applying iron oxides to achieve a natural patina finish that will stand the test of time.
Nothing is Drop Forged. We create works The Old Fashioned Way using solid hand forged steel, (drop forging is a poor quality, casted copy of a hand forged work of art). Nothing is wrought iron; wrought iron is simply a softer and less sturdy form of metal that cannot compare to stronger hand forged low carbon steel.
The kind of hand forged metal work you can expect when you order from Scottsdale Art Factory.
Patina Finish As Shown: Various Colors Of Hand Applied Iron Oxide Patinas.
Our beautiful patina finishes are hand applied using a special patented process where oxides are bonded into the metal at over 1000 degrees. This permanent finish beautifies with age. S.A.F. does not paint or faux finish any of our iron creations. Paint fades, chips and cracks over time and patinas last forever. No Drop Forged Casted Copies. No Paint Or Powder Coated Finishes. limited edition or original works.
Every surface of this furnishing is finely finished including the undersides and hidden areas.
Each item is finished to be virtually maintenance free and to age with grace.
All steel parts are hand patina finished the old fashioned way by iron oxide hand applied with high temperature heat. We never powder coat or faux paint our steel, it has been proven paint and powder coating methods do not hold up over time. You may choose from many natural iron oxide colors. Our patina finishes are water based and earth friendly. You may order any single color or texture finish at no extra charge.
Order Hand Forged Matching Furnishings Of Any Design.
We Guarantee Each Item "Forever" " No Questions Asked, backed by over nine decades of fine craftsmanship.
Scottsdale Art Factory carries on the American Arts And Crafts Movement of the 21st century,
in the same way William Morris and John Ruskin (founders of the Arts and Crafts furniture movement in circa 1800 England) inspired Gustave Stickley (founder of the American Arts and Crafts movement) in America circa 1900. Frank Loyd Wright, Charles and Henry Greene (inspired architects of the ultimate cottages such as the Gamble House in Pasadena California
) are credited with raising quality standard to its highest level in their day. All of these great master craftsman also inspired the Marbella Brothers in the early 20th Century (founders of SAF circa 1913).
Every creative enterprise is always built on a foundation that was laid down by its predecessors. Creative people are also dependent on the groundwork laid down by those who came before them. H. J. Nick, artist and direct descendant of the Marbella brothers, and Scottsdale Art Factory have built on these foundations and have raised the bar of quality even higher. Thus setting a new standard and offering the finest one of a kind handmade furnishings found anywhere in the world in the 21st century.
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More about the history of Scottsdale Art Factory and the American furniture movement of the 21st century.